Urban Governance and Informal Growth Regulation in Dhaka
 
     
  Product Details:

Publication Date: April 2013
ISBN: 9789849048688
Format: Hardcover, 282 pages
Language: English
Condition: New

Book Description:

This research mainly deals with analyzing the urban governance situation of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh and a rapidly growing mega-city with limited financial resources. The research focuses on the analysis of statutory planning processes and the relevant institutional and legal setting prevailing in Dhaka city, the potentials of social self-regulation in unplanned settlements to maintain or establish the functionality of the urban fabric, pros and cons of informal fringe development in the context of weak city governance and on the opportunity to make interfaces for integrating institutions and strategies of social regulation into the statutory planning system. Brief on land management and real estate market are also discussed in this research. Two case studies were selected to examine the impact of the prevailing politico-institutional urban governance setting in Dhaka. Inner city area redevelopment process by the citizens and informal fringe development processes were thoroughly investigated for this research over a period of four years. Informality in particular is examined as a central focus in examining all the processes and actions in urban governance. In addition, at the beginning of this dissertation the theoretical discussion on institutional issues related to city governance, land governance and informality is reviewed and compared with the situation prevailing in Dhaka. These theoretical issues are positioned in the context of Dhaka city in the concluding parts.
Table of Contents
Contents page
Table of contents v
List of tables viii
List of boxes viii
List of figures viii
Acknowledgement xi
Preface Xiii
List of acronyms Xv
Chapter one: Introduction
1.1 Urban planning and responsible statutory institutions 1
1.2 Development process in its spatial dimension 3
1.3 Defining megacity 5
1.4 Challenges of urbanization and megacity management 6
1.5 Resolving city region planning issues 8
1.6 Urban ‘Management’ or ‘Governance’? 9
Urban management 9
Urban governance 12
Urban governance and spatial planning 15
1.7 Informal urban governance and rise of civil society 15
1.8 Informal urbanization in Dhaka 17
1.9 Focus of this research 19
Chapter two:
Urban planning and management:
approaches, new institutional theories and rise of informal governance
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Institutional theories relevant to urban governance 21
2.3 The concepts of structure and agency along with power and institutions 26
2.4 Human agency, structure and system 27
2.5 Actors oriented approach: The central importance of agency, knowledge and power 28
2.6 Informality and informal urban governance 29
2.7 Local participation, social capital, civil society as citizenship, rights and political participation in urban governance 31
2.8 Community governance, local innovation/socially creative strategies/ social self-regulation 33
2.9 Concluding remarks 36

Chapter three:
Concepts of land management and system in Dhaka
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Notion of land management 37
3.3 Land management and sustainability 38
3.4 Application of good governance in land management 40
3.5 Remarks on land governance 43
3.6 Concept of informal development 44
3.7 Land management in Bangladesh: legal, institutional and policy framework 47
3.7.1 Legal framework 47
3.7.2 Land tenure types and security and transaction process 48
3.7.3 Land administration and institutional framework 55
3.7.4 Land disputes and conflicts 56
3.7.5 Land information system 57
3.8 Pressure on land due to socio-economic and demographic factors in Dhaka 57
3.8.1 Remittances and land value 58
3.8.2 Undisclosed/black money and asset price 60
3.8.3 Land price scenario and access by lower income people 61
3.8.4 Access to housing by lower income people 63
3.9 Existing settlement pattern of Dhaka city 66
3.10 Pattern and direction of expansion in Dhaka 68
3.11 Concluding remarks 69
Chapter four:
Governance mechanism in Dhaka:
legal and planning framework and institutional setting
4.1 Introduction 71
4.2 Physical setting and growth of Dhaka 72
4.3 Government administrative structure of Bangladesh 75
4.4 Statutory urban development management functions and responsibilities 78
4.4.1 Institutional set up for national planning 78
4.4.2 Development management for the Dhaka metropolitan area 78
4.5 Legal framework for Dhaka city governance 80
4.6 Brief on governance institutions of Dhaka city 84
4.6.1 Organizations with principal management role 85
4.6.2 Providers of utility services 86
4.6.3 National organizations supplying major services 86
4.6.4 Control of building construction 87
4.6.5 Revenue and expenditure 88
4.6.6 Public land acquisition and management 89
4.6.7 The issue of functional coordination among the main stakeholders 89
4.6.8 Institutional responsibilities at a glance 81

4.7 RAJUK (Capital Development Authority) 92
4.7.1 Background 92
4.7.2 Organizational structure of RAJUK 93
4.7.3 Functions and mandates 95
4.8 Municipal government 100
4.8.1 Background 100
4.8.2 Legal and organizational structure of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) 100
4.8.3 Functions of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) 105
4.8.4 Issues and role of Dhaka City Corporation 109
4.9 Stakeholder influence in planning and management of Dhaka 111
4.10 Development planning and control in Dhaka 115
4.10.1 Development planning in Dhaka 116
4.10.1.1 Master Plan 1959 116
4.10.1.2 Dhaka Metropolitan Area Integrated Urban Development Plan 119
4.10.1.3 Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan (DMDP), 1995-2015 119
a) Structure Plan 120
b)Urban Area Plan (UAP) 121
c) Detailed Area Plan (DAP) 121
4.10.2 Development control 124
4.10.2.1 Zoning 124
4.10.2.2 Subdivision 125
4.10.2.3 Density control 125
4.11 RAJUK’s internal organizations 126
4.12 Concluding remarks 129
Chapter five:
Conceptual framework an empirical design
5.1 Introduction 131
5.2 Conceptual framework for this research 132
5.3 Objectives of the study 133
5.4 Research questions 134
5.5 Research hypotheses 137
5.6 Empirical study methods 139
5.6.1 General research strategy 141
5.6.2 Elements for research 143
5.6.3 Research design 143
5.6.4 Selection of case study settlements 148
5.7 Concluding remarks 151
Chapter six:
Informal inner city development – a case study on Shewrapara, Mirpur, Dhaka
6.1 Introduction 153
6.2 Rise of informal governance in Dhaka 154
6.3 Case study area location 155
6.4 Results from the case study 158
6.4.1 West Shewrapara: Negotiation of accessibility through road widening program 158
6.4.2 Power imbalances between actors, sources of power 159
6.4.3 Consequences of informal negotiation and practice 162
6.4.4 Impulses for local institutional innovation 164
6.4.5 Motivational factors 164
6.4.6 Procedures of program implementation 165
6.4.7 Social innovation 167
6.4.8 Social struggle and empowerment 168
6.4.9 Sustainability and legitimization 168
6.4.10 Issue of sustainable land management 169
6.5 Concluding remarks 170
Chapter seven:
Informal fringe development: a case study on Badda, Dhaka
7.1 Introduction 173
7.2 Informal land development in the fringe - a case study on Badda, Dhaka 174
7.2.1 Introducing the case study location 174
7.2.2 Background of the study area 175
7.2.3 Economic activities in the study area 175
7.2.4 Transportation network in the study area 176
7.2.5 Development process of Uttar Badda 176
7.2.6 Actors involved in the process 189
7.3 Remarks on the land management system in Dhaka 191
7.4 Remarks on informal development in Dhaka 193
7.5
Available policy options to tackle informal development 196
7.6 Concluding remarks 197
Chapter eight:
Reflections on theories and the conceptual framework
8.1 Introduction 199
8.2 Reflection on the theories of social self-regulation and the Shewrapara case 199
8.3 Reflection on the theories of informal urban development and the Badda case 201
8.4 Revisiting the land governance framework 205
8.5 The concept of good urban governance and the Dhaka case 206
8.6 Reflection on the institutional theories and Dhaka city governance 209
8.7 Reflection on the conceptual framework 212
8.8 Summary and concluding remarks 215
Chapter nine:
Conclusion 222
Appendices 227
References 257